Product life cycle assessments
Product life cycle assessments (LCAs) assess the overall environmental impacts caused by a system of production, use and disposal activities (known as the product chain or the “product life-cycle”) necessary to provide a specific product.
Life cycle studies are typically comparative, i.e., they assess the environmental impacts of “potential” product substitutions (the choice of one product system instead of another). LCAs can also be performed to assess the consequences of wider decisions, projects, or the entire product portfolio of an enterprise. Most often our studies are policy-oriented, data-rich, and use monetary valuation of the environmental impacts (externalities).
You need not be bothered with all the technical details. But if you are interested in the more technical aspects, there are lots of references to textbook stuff and other publications at our Tools and Publications pages.
Below you will find a selection of our product life cycle assessments projects. To see work for specific industries or products you can go to the project page and use the sidebar to filter all of our projects.
The Triple-A-COAT project aims to develop a bio-based antiviral/antimicrobial/antifungal coating platform for high traffic surfaces and textiles.
- Towards net zero for global logistics
2.-0 LCA consultants supports Maersk to fulfil their net zero pledge for 2040, that has recently been rated as the pledge with most integrity.
- Hyperconnected architecture for high cognitive production plants – HyperCOG
In the HyperCOG project, 2.-0 LCA leads the life cycle assessment of the environmental, social and economic impacts of industrial digitalisation for three case studies.
- Life Cycle Assessment of palm oil at United Plantations Berhad
This ongoing project aims to presents regular summaries of detailed life cycle assessments (LCA) of the palm oil production at United Plantations Berhad (Teluk Intan, Malaysia).
- Rethinking municipal tariff systems to improve urban waste governance January 2023
The aim of the LIFE-REthinkWASTE project is to provide a governance scheme for municipalities to increase waste separation, reduction and recovery rates and to simultaneously reduce the waste bills of households.
- Management of ladle refractory brick waste – E-CO-LadleBrick November 2022
The main aims of the E-CO-LadleBrick project are to achieve an innovative waste management for worn ladle bricks in steel mills by implementing Circular Economy criteria based in a "4R model" (Reduce, Reuse, Remanufacture and Recycle)
- Comparative LCA of in-mould structural electronics (IMSE®) for a coffee maker June 2022
The aim of this project was to compare the life-cycle environmental impact of alternative options for a control panel incorporated in a coffee maker, manufactured using in-mould structural electronics (IMSE®) technology and conventional technology (separate plastic and electronic components).
- Life cycle assessment of organic residues recycling at SARIA February 2022
An LCA of individual product lines was performed for SARIA’s treatment services of animal by-products and organic residues.
- Life cycle assessment (LCA) of Kangamiut Seafood products November 2021
A cradle to consumer consequential life cycle assessment was conducted of 3 seafood products from Kangamiut Seafood, namely of: Atlantic cod, Cooked and peeled prawns and shell-on prawns. Additionally, screenings of carbon offsetting options were conducted.
- Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emission calculator for MAVASOL’s sand recovery system April 2021
The aim of the project was to build a specific model and tool for MAVASOL to calculate the potential savings in GHG emissions associated to the implementation of their sand recovery system (SRS) for dairy farms. This was done by comparing two alternative situations (SRS vs no-SRS).
- LCA of Danish mink fur production March 2021
This study assessed the environmental impact of mink-based fur production in Denmark, by performing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the average fur production in Denmark.
- LCA of DuPont Hytrel renewably-sourced thermoplastic elastomer January 2021
The goal of this study is to carry out a comparative LCA of the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) Hytrel® by DuPont™ based on both renewably-sourced and fossil-based production routes for key ingredients.
- LCA of 500 food items December 2020
Consumers as well as professionals in the grocery and catering industry are increasingly demanding information about the climate footprint of the foods they buy or sell. This project will result in a public climate database of more than 500 foods.
- Total resource flows and environmental impacts December 2020
An inventory including both a mass and energy flow analysis and a life cycle screening is performed for the region Northern Jutland. The inventory provides both a production perspective and a consumer perspective.
- Integral refractory waste management – LIFE 5REFRACT December 2020
LIFE 5REFRACT aims at applying a "5R" (reduce, reuse, remanufacture, recycle, re-educate) approach within the European steel sector to reach an integral valorisation of refractory materials.
- Ecolabel criteria for buildings October 2020
This project for Nordic Ecolabelling entails a review and assessment life-cycle based standards, methods and tools available for designers and producers of buildings and building materials.
- Life Cycle Assessment of EmbryoScope+ September 2020
This project involved a high-level screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of the product EmbryoScope+, focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The project resulted in a report aimed at the decision-makers at Vitrolife A/S.
- Comparative LCA of a bio-based nylon resin May 2020
The project concerned a cradle-to-gate LCA of a specification of the bio-based nylon resin Zytel® produced by DuPont™, and a comparison with a fossil-based alternative.
- Life cycle assessment of organic residues recycling at DAKA April 2020
A comparative LCA of individual product lines was performed for Daka’s treatment services of by-products from slaughterhouses, fallen stock (animals that died on farm) and food waste. Furthermore total product portfolio LCAs for 2018/2019 were calculated.
- Climate footprint of a video meeting using Jabra Panacast December 2019
This project provides a climate footprint of a video meeting using Jabra Panacast, a comparison to face-to-face meetings, and a description of the approach followed to obtain the results. The project resulted in a not publicly available report.
- Social footprint of packaging waste prevention October 2019
The aim of this project was to conduct a social footprint assessment of a packaging waste prevention campaign carried out in Zamudio.
- Additive Manufacturing – HINDCON September 2019
The aim of the work-package 6 of the HINDCON project is to perform value chain simulation and modelling with integrated LCA with life cycle data related to additive manufacturing in the construction sector.
- Life cycle assessment of pea protein July 2019
The goal of this study was to assess the environmental impact of pea protein isolate produced by DuPont Nutrition & Health from North American yellow peas.
- Water reuse in O&G sector – INTEGROIL May 2019
The INTEGROIL project aims to supply and validate the first application of an integrated solution to improve the treatment of produced water and wastewater of the oil and gas (O&G) industry, as well as to produce water of enough quality to be reused, increasing the sustainability of the whole process.
- Thermal energy recovery – THERBIOR May 2019
This project focuses on the development, implementation and diffusion of technologies to improve energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a fully off-grid solar-assisted heat pump (SHP) system.
- Palm oil pilot study February 2019
This project consists of a pilot (LCA) study of refined palm oil. Mitigation options in relation to nature conservation is investigated and comparisons with industry average palm oil is made.
- Comparison of environmental claims for graphical products January 2019
The project outlines how environmental claims can be verified by life cycle assessment, and which core aspects are required for such claims to be valid.
- Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Ecosave Packaging and conventional packaging August 2018
The aim of this study is to compare selected Ecosave Packaging with conventional packaging for a range of impact categories. The study enables the client to provide quantitative information to customers.
- Life cycle assessment of isolated soy protein March 2018
The project concerned a cradle-to-gate LCA of isolated soy protein (ISP) produced by DuPont N&H in the United States. The LCA included the cultivation of soy as well as the processing of the beans to ISP.
- Life cycle assessment of Xylitol November 2017
The goal of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the sweetener xylitol, produced by DuPont Nutrition & Health based on different raw materials and different production sites.
- Nano3Bio September 2017
The Nano3Bio project aims to develop biotechnological production systems for nanoformulated chitosans based on renewable resources and to further the introduction of these to the market to replace current chemical methods.
- Sustainability assessment of a deposit return system for packaging waste in Spain June 2017
The project (ARIADNA) aimed at providing an environmental, economic and social assessment of the implementation in Spain of a deposit return system (DRS) for some plastic and glass beverage containers present in municipal solid waste (MSW). The consequences of implementing this system were compared to those of the existing system, based on kerbside collection of these materials.
- Social Footprints studies April 2017
This project aims to increase the knowledge of social performance of two products from the Nestlé supply chains: the production of milk (liquid milk and milk powder) in Pakistan, and the production of tomato-based sauces under the Solis brand in Spain.
- Environmental Impacts of Alcoholic Beverages December 2016
The purpose of the study was to document the total environmental impact of the product portfolio of the alcohol monopolies. The environmental impacts was expressed in monetary units, in addition to the underlying physical units.
- E P&L for Arla Foods May 2016
An Environmental Profit & Loss account (E P&L) was conducted by Arla Foods, the third largest dairy cooperative in the world, with the aim of documenting the total environmental impact of Arla Foods.
- Carbon Footprint Tool for Milk May 2016
We developed a tool, which can be used for calculation of carbon footprint of milk both at farm level and at national level. The tool is used by Danish dairy farmers and to review selected historical national productions.
- Potentials and barriers to the use of wood and sustainable wood in construction April 2016
On the basis of an assignment from the Center for Construction this project aimed to uncover potentials and barriers in the use of wood in Danish construction.
- Relative Sustainability of Vegetable Oils March 2016
Evidence to inform consumers and policy-makers of the potential negative environmental consequences of replacing any particular vegetable oil at the expense of another.
- Sustainable Solutions January 2016
The project aims at quantifying the environmental impacts of a range of solutions from DuPont Nutrition & Health. The project includes life cycle screenings of DuPont specialty food ingredients and their application in the industry.
- LCA of Locust Bean Gum June 2015
The project concerned a cradle-to-customer LCA of locust bean gum produced by DuPont N&H at their plant in Valencia in Spain. The LCA was a cradle-to-gate assessment and included the cultivation of carob pods, and the processing at the plant in Valencia.
- LCA of Emulsifiers May 2015
This project has applied life cycle assessment (LCA) to a series of emulsifiers manufactured by DuPont Nutrition and Health in Grindsted, Denmark.
- Environmental life cycle screening of different protein sources april 2015
The goal of this study was to assess the environmental impact of protein obtained from different animal and vegetable sources.
- Life Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of Ecolabels March 2015
This study estimated the effect of the Nordic ecolabels on apartment buildings, canteens and laundry detergents in a Danish context.
- EPD for Textile Based Ventilation Ducts January 2015
The goal of this project was to perform an environmental product declaration for a specific textile duct and enable future EPD's of similar textile ducts produced by the company.
- Biotreat LCA December 2014
BIOTREAT LCA focused on treatment systems for drinking water resources. The competitiveness of the BIOTREAT technologies relative to other water treatment technologies was determined with LCA.
- LCA of Pectin February 2014
In this project we conducted a life cycle assessment of the annual industry average of global production of pectin based on data from the year 2011.
- Baisikeli’s Recycling Project in Mozambique September 2013
The purpose of this small project was to assess the climate effect of re-using old Danish bicycles in Mozambique relative to the current disposal as scrap.
- LCA screening of biofuels May 2013
This project was initiated by the Danish green think tank Concito to assess the climate impacts of six different biofuels: wood pellets, wood chips, straw, biogas, ethanol and biodiesel.
- LCA of Eco Island Ferry April 2013
The purpose of the project was to investigate significant improvements to operational costs and environmental impacts for a new island ferry travelling between Hov and the Tunø Island in Denmark.
- Ecodesign Requirements for Televisions January 2013
The focus of this project was the implementation of the EU Directive 2005/32/EC on ecodesign requirements for energy using products (the EuP Directive) with special attention to the ecodesign requirements for televisions (TV).
- Plastberegner – LCA of plastics September 2012
This tool was publicly available and enabled a calculation of the environmental effects of plastic products using a life cycle approach. See also this publication.
- LCA of a Bio-Based Plasticizer June 2011
The project included a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of DuPont’s SOFT-N-SAFETM.
- Assessment of the Effect of Agricultural Research December 2010
The project aimed at assessing the effect of agricultural research. We improved the modelling of agricultural production in the Danish input-output model and applied the STEPWISE impact assessment method to monetarise the externalities.
- LCA Screening of Mobile Phone Service May 2010
The purpose of this project was to identify the environmental impacts of the Greentel telephone service delivered by MobileValue in order for MobileValue to offset these impacts by investment in renewable energy.
- The ALCOA Smelter in Greenland July 2009
The project aimed to provide a detailed overview of the environmental impacts, seen in a life cycle perspective, of an aluminium smelter with an annual capacity of 360,000 tonnes planned for instalment in West Greenland.
- Environmental Improvement Potentials of Meat and Dairy Products November 2007
This project applies several novel elements at the same time, such as hybrid LCA, consequential modelling, rebound effects, social impacts, life cycle costs, analysis of synergies and dysergies, impact assessment with full monetarisation, temporal discounting, and policy feasibility assessment.
- Environmental Impact of Competing Agricultural Products April 2005
The purpose of the project was to assess the environmental impacts from Danish pork and milk products in a life cycle perspective, in comparison with competing products, and, on this basis, to identify and prioritise the areas where the Danish environmental performance could be improved.
- LCA-Food: A Database for Basic Foods March 2004
A database on the environmental impacts from basic food products was produced in 2000-2003 for the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, as part of the project "Lifecycle Assessment of Basic Food". The database is available free of charge.
- LCA of RSPO Certified Palm Oil
This project aims to develop time-series of life cycle (LCA) results of RSPO certified versus non-certified palm oil. Further, the LCA is differentiate between producing countries and type of growers (estates and smallholders)