Consequential Life Cycle Assessment: What, Why and How?

Brandão M, Weidema B P, Martin M, Cowie A, Hamelin L, Zamagni A (2022)

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Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences


This article provides guidelines for conducting consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. It presents the main features of two alternative approaches used in LCA-attributional and consequential-and describes how consequential LCA can be performed consistently and appropriately, with an example provided to guide practitioners. It is argued that, despite its limitations, consequential LCA is a robust approach for estimating important indirect effects of products.

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