Older publications

Weidema B P – 2011  Uncertainty reduction in consequential LCA models. Presentation for the Life Cycle Assessment XI (LCA XI) Conference, Chicago, 2011.10.4‑6.

Weidema B P – 2011  Insights from life cycle modelling. Presentation for the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative workshop on Knowledge mining on Product Sustainability from LCA Studies for Effective LCM Practice, Berlin, 2011‑09‑01.

Sonnemann G, Vigon B – 2011  Global Guidance Principles for Life Cycle Assessment Databases. Paris/Pensacola: UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative.

Schmidt J H, Merciai S, Thrane M, Dalgaard R – 2011  Inventory of country specific electricity in LCA – Consequential and attributional scenarios. Methodology report v2. 2.‑0 LCA consultants, Aalborg, Denmark.

Merciai S, Schmidt J H, Dalgaard R – 2011  Inventory of country specific electricity in LCA – India. 2.‑0 LCA consultants, Aalborg, Denmark.

Weidema B P – 2011  Stepping stones from life cycle assessment to adjacent assessment techniques. Journal of Industrial Ecology 15(5):658‑661.

Weidema B P – 2011  Ecoinvent database version 3 – the practical implications of the choice of system model. Presentation for the Life Cycle Management (LCM 2011) conference, Berlin, 2011.08.28‑31.

Weidema B P – 2011  Re-engineering LCA for simplicity and flexibility. Presentation for the SETAC Europe Annual Meeting, Milano, 2011.05.15‑19.

Pizzol M, Christensen P, Schmidt J H, Thomsen M – 2011  Impacts of metals on human health: a comparison between nine different methodologies for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Journal of Cleaner Production 19:646‑656

Pizzol M, Christensen P, Schmidt J H, Thomsen M – 2011  Eco-toxicological impact of metals on the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem: A comparison between eight different methodologies for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Journal of Cleaner Production 19:687‑698

Schmidt J H – 2010  Challenges relating to data and system delimitation in Life Cycle Assessments of food products. Pp. 83‑97 in Sonnesen U, Berlin J and Ziegler F (eds.): Environmental assessment and management in the food industry: Life cycle assessment and related approaches. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition No. 194. ISBN 978‑1‑84569‑552‑1.

Weidema B P – 2010  Environmental training for the food industry. Pp. 356‑373 in Sonnesen U, Berlin J and Ziegler F (eds.): Environmental assessment and management in the food industry: Life cycle assessment and related approaches. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition No. 194. ISBN 978‑1‑84569‑552‑1.

Reinhard J, Weidema B P, Schmidt J H – 2010  Identifying the marginal supply of wood pulp. 2.‑0 LCA consultants, Aalborg, Denmark.

Suh S, Weidema B P, Schmidt J H, Heijungs R – 2010  Generalized make and use framework for allocation in life cycle assessment. Journal of Industrial Ecology 14(2):335‑353.

Weidema B P, Schmidt J H – 2010  Avoiding allocation in life cycle assessment revisited. Column for Journal of Industrial Ecology 14(2):192‑195.

Schmidt J H – 2010  Comparative life cycle assessment of rapeseed oil and palm oil. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15 (2):183‑197

Schmidt J H – 2010  FORWAST: Documentation of the data consolidation, calibration, and scenario parameterisation. Deliverable 6‑1 of the EU FP6‑project FORWAST. http://forwast.brgm.fr/.

Schmidt J H – 2010  FORWAST: 25 year forecast of physical stocks, waste, and environmental impact of 9 scenarios. Deliverable 6‑2 of the EU FP6‑project FORWAST. http://forwast.brgm.fr/.

Schmidt J H – 2010  FORWAST: Contribution analysis, uncertainty assessment, and policy recommendation. Deliverable 6‑3 of the EU FP6‑project FORWAST. http://forwast.brgm.fr/.

Schmidt J H, Weidema B P, Suh S – 2010  FORWAST: Documentation of the final model used for the scenario analyses. Deliverable 6‑4 of the EU FP6‑project FORWAST. http://forwast.brgm.fr/.

Lund H, Mathiesen B V, Christensen P, Schmidt J H – 2010  Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15:260‑271

Schmidt J H, Thrane M – 2009  Life cycle assessment of aluminium production in new Alcoa smelter in Greenland. Government of Greenland.

Schmidt J H, Weidema B P – 2009  Response to the public consultation on a set of guidance documents of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook. 2.‑0 LCA consultants.

Weidema B P, Ekvall T, Heijungs R – 2009  Guidelines for applications of deepened and broadened LCA. Deliverable D18 of work package 5 of the CALCAS project. The two chapters on Consequential LCA and Hybrid approaches combining IOA and LCA can also be downloaded separately.

Weidema B P, Hermansen J, Eder P – 2009  Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on LCA in the Agri-Food Sector. Meat and milk products in Europe: Impacts and improvements. Pp. 295‑305 in Nemecek T, Gaillard G (eds.)

Weidema B P – 2009  Avoiding or ignoring uncertainty. Column for Journal of Industrial Ecology 13(3):354‑356.

Notten P, Suh S, Weidema B P – 2009  Prioritizing within the product-oriented environmental policy – the Danish perspectives. Pp. 397‑415 in Suh S. (ed.): Handbook of Input‑Output Economics in Industrial Ecology. Springer Netherlands.

Andrews E S, Barthel L-P, Beck T, Benoit C, Ciroth A, Cucuzzella C, Gensch C-O, Hubert J, Lesage P, Manhart A, Maria L, Mazeau P, Mazijn B, Methot A-L, Moberg A, Norris G A, Parent J, Prakash S, Reveret J-P, Spillemaeckers S, Ugaya S, Valdivia S, Weidema B P – 2009  Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products. United Nations Environment Programme.

Weidema B P – 2009  Using the budget constraint to monetarise impact assessment results. Ecological Economics 68(6):1591‑1598.

Schmidt J H, Christensen P, Christensen T S – 2009  Assessing the land use implications of biodiesel use from an LCA perspective. Journal of Land Use Science Vol. 4, No. 1‑2, March 2009, pp 35‑52.

Weidema B P, Wesnæs M, Hermansen J, Kristensen T, Halberg N – 2008  Environmental improvement potentials of meat and dairy products. Eder P & Delgado L (eds.) Sevilla: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. (EUR 23491 EN).

Zackrisson M, Rocha C, Christiansen K, Jarnehammar A – 2008  Stepwise environmental product declarations: ten SME case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production 16(17):1872‑1886.

Schmidt J H – 2008  System delimitation in agricultural consequential LCA – Outline of methodology and illustrative case study of wheat in Denmark. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13(4):350‑365.

Weidema B P – 2008  Rebound effects of sustainable production. Presentation to the "Sustainable Consumption and Production" session of the conference "Bridging the Gap; Responding to Environmental Change ‑ From Words to Deeds", Portoro, Slovenia, 2008.05.14‑16. (Also presented to LCAVIII, Seattle, 2008.09.30).

Schmidt J H – 2008  Development of LCIA characterisation factors for land use impacts on biodiversity. Journal of Cleaner Production 16 (2008):1929‑1942.

Dalgaard R, Schmidt J H, Halberg N, Christensen P, Thrane M, Pengue W A – 2008  LCA of soybean meal. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 13(3):240‑254

Thiesen J, Christensen T S, Kristensen T G, Andersen R D, Brunoe B, Gregersen T K, Thrane M, Weidema B P – 2008  Rebound effects of price differences. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13(2):104‑114

Weidema B P – 2008  Framework for and review of biodiversity indicators for forest management in the context of product life cycle assessment. Hørsholm: 2.‑0 LCA consultants.

Weidema B P – 2008  Criteria for good biodiversity indicators for forest management in the context of product life cycle assessment. Hørsholm: 2.‑0 LCA consultants.

Schmidt J H, Weidema B P – 2008  Shift in the marginal supply of vegetable oil. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13(3):235‑239

Weidema B P, Thrane M, Christensen P, Schmidt J H, Løkke S – 2008  Carbon footprint. A catalyst for life cycle assessment? Journal of Industrial Ecology, 12(1):3‑6

Dalgaard R, Halberg N, Hermansen J E – 2007  Danish pork production – an environmental assessment. DJF Animal Science NO. 82, November 2007

Weidema B P, Hauschild M, Jolliet O – 2007  Preparing characterisation methods for endpoint impact assessment. Published as Annex II of the report: "Environmental improvement potentials of meat and dairy products". Together with the publication "Using the budget constraint to monetarise impact assessment results", this publication provides a complete presentation of our Stepwise2006 impact assessment method. The Stepwise package contains both articles and a CSV‑file for direct import of the method into the SimaPro LCA software.

Weidema B P – 2007  Allocation in recycling. Excerpts from an Online LCA Forum discussion.

Hornblow B, Weidema B P – 2007  Review of recent macro-economic scenarios. Deliverable 5‑1 of the FORWAST project

Weidema B P, Thrane M – 2007  Comments on the development of harmonized method for Sustainability Assessment of Technologies (SAT). Comments on the main issues raised in the Background paper to the first workshop on Sustainability Assessment of Technologies (Galatola 2007a) and the subsequent presentation at the SETAC conference (Galatola 2007b)

Wesnæs M, Weidema B P – 2007  NAMEA-based normalisation reference for Europe year 2000 (zip-file). Hørsholm: 2.‑0 LCA consultants.

Schmidt J H, Holm P, Merrild A, Christensen P – 2007  Life cycle assessment of the waste hierarchy – A Danish case study on waste paper. Waste Management 27(2007):1519‑1530

Thrane M, Schmidt J H – 2007  Life Cycle Assessment. P. 204‑239 in Kørnøv L, Thrane M, Remmen A and Lund H (eds.): “Tools for Sustainable Development”. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag. ISBN 978‑87‑7307‑797‑9.

Schmidt J H, Thrane M – 2007  LCA case study of pickled herring. P. 241‑266 in: Kørnøv L, Thrane M, Remmen A and Lund H (eds.): “Tools for Sustainable Development”. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag. ISBN 978‑87‑7307‑797‑9.

Weidema B P – 2006  Social impact categories, indicators, characterisation and damage modelling. Presentation for the 29th Swiss LCA Discussion Forum, 2006‑06‑15.

Dalgaard R, Halberg N, Kristensen I S, Larsen I – 2006  Modelling representative and coherent Danish farm types based on farm accountancy data for use in environmental assessments. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 117(4):223‑237.

Wesnæs M, Weidema B P – 2006  Long-term market reactions to changes in demand for NaOH. Study for Novozymes. Copenhagen: 2.‑0 LCA consultants.

Weidema B P, Wesnæs M, Christiansen K, Koneczny K – 2006  Life-cycle based cost-benefit assessment of waste management options. Presentation for ISWA Annual Congress 2006, Copenhagen, 2006.10.1‑5. The full report from this study has been edited and published by the EU Commission.

Coakley T, O'Leary E, Wejdling H, Christiansen K – 2006  The HAZTRAIN hazardous waste identification tool (HWIT). Presentation for ISWA Annual Congress 2006, Copenhagen, 2006.10.1‑5

Weidema B P, Suh S, Notten P – 2006  Setting priorities within product-oriented environmental policy: the Danish perspectives. Journal of Industrial Ecology 10(3):73‑87

Finkbeiner M, Inaba A, Tan R, Christiansen K, Klüppel H-J – 2006  The new international standards for life cycle assessment: ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11(2):80‑85

Weidema B P – 2006  The integration of economic and social aspects in life cycle impact assessment. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11(1):89‑96

Norris G A – 2006  Social Impacts in Product Life Cycles – Towards Life Cycle Attribute Assessment. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11(1):97‑104

Grießhammer R, Benoit C, Dreyer L C, Flysjö A, Manhart A, Mazijn B, Methot A-L, Weidema B P – 2006  Feasibility Study: Integration of social aspects into LCA. Prepared for the UNEP Life Cycle Initiative. Freiburg: Eco‑Institute.

Christiansen K, Wesnæs M, Weidema B P – 2006  Consumer demands on Type III environmental declarations. Report commissioned by ANEC ‑ the consumer voice in standardisation.

Christiansen K, Rocha C – 2006  Integrated Management Systems and Tools. Pp. 22‑36 in Jensen A A, Remmen A (eds.) (2004 revised in 2006). Background Report for a UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management ‑ A bridge to sustainable products. Paris: United Nations Environmental Programme.

Weidema B P, Wesnæs M – 2005  Marginal production routes and co-product allocation for alcoholetoxylate from palm oil and palm kernel oil (zip-file). Study for Novozymes. Copenhagen: 2.‑0 LCA consultants.

Weidema B P – 2005  ISO 14044 also applies to social LCA. Letter to the editor. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(6):381

Suh S, Huppes G – 2005  Methods in Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of a product. Journal of Cleaner Production 13(7):687‑697

Mongelli I, Suh S, Huppes G – 2005  A Structure Comparison of two Approaches to LCA Inventory Data, Based on the MIET and ETH Databases. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(5):317‑324

Stewart M, Weidema B P – 2005  A consistent framework for assessing the impacts from resource use – A focus on resource functionality. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(4):240‑247

Nishioka Y, Levy J I, Norris G A, Bennett D H, Spengler J D – 2005  A risk-based approach to health impact assessment for Input-Output Analysis. Part I. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(3‑4): 193‑199

Nishioka Y, Levy J I, Norris G A, Bennett D H, Spengler J D – 2005  A risk-based approach to health impact assessment for input-output analysis. Part II. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(3‑4):255‑262

Weidema B P, Christiansen K, Nielsen A M, Norris G A, Notten P, Suh S, Madsen J – 2005  Prioritisation within the integrated product policy. Environmental project no. 980. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Input‑Output database which resulted from this project is also available for download in SimaPro format.

Notten P, Petrie J G – 2005  Inventory and impact assessment uncertainty in coal-based power generation. Pp. 138‑42 in A Dubreuil: "Life Cycle Assessment and Metals: Issues and research directions." Pensacola: SETAC. (Proceedings of the International Workshop on Life Cycle Assessment and Metals, Montreal, Canada, 2002.04.15‑17).

Heijungs R, Suh S, Kleijn R – 2005  Numerical approaches to life cycle interpretation: The case of the Ecoinvent ’96 database. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(2):103‑112

Weidema B P – 2005  The integration of economic and social aspects in life cycle impact assessment. Presentation for the LCM2005 conference, Barcelona, 2005.09.05‑07

Weidema B P – 2005  Hydrid LCA made easy. Poster for the 2005 SETAC conference

Weidema B P, Norris G A – 2004  Avoiding co-product allocation in the metals sector. Pp. 81‑87 in A Dubreuil: "Life Cycle Assessment and Metals: Issues and research directions." Pensacola: SETAC. (Proceedings of the International Workshop on Life Cycle Assessment and Metals, Montreal, Canada, 2002.04.15‑17). Note the error in the two formulas on p. 4: 1*11/14 ‑‑> 1*10/14 and 4*11/14 ‑‑> 4*1/14.

Weidema B P – 2004  Geographical, technological and temporal delimitation in LCA. UMIP 2003 method. København: Miljøstyrelsen. (Environmental News 74)

Weidema B P, Ekvall T, Pesonen H-L, Rebitzer G, Sonnemann G, Spielmann M – 2004  Scenarios in life-cycle assessment. Edited by G Rebitzer & T Ekvall. Pensacola: SETAC.

Nielsen P H, Tukker A, Weidema B P, Lauridsen E H, Notten P – 2004  Environmental impact of the use of natural resources. Seville: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, European Commission DG Joint Research Centre. (Technical Report EUR 21485 EN)

Weidema B P, Wenzel H, Petersen C, Hansen K – 2004  The product, functional unit and reference flows in LCA. København: Miljøstyrelsen. (Environmental News 70)

Nielsen A M, Nielsen P H, Jensen J D, Andersen M, Weidema B P – 2004  Identification of processes affected by a marginal change in demand for food products – two examples on Danish pigs and cheese. Pp. 127‑134 in N Halberg (ed.): Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri‑food sector. Proceedings from 4th International Conference, 2003.10.6‑8, Bygho

Jolliet O, Müller-Wenk R, Bare J, Brent A, Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Itsubo N, Peña C, Pennington D W, Potting J, Rebitzer G, Stewart M, Udo de Haes H, Weidema B P – 2004  The LCIA midpoint-damage framework of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 9(6):394‑404

Suh S – 2004  Functions, commodities and environmental impacts in an ecological economic model. Ecological Economics 48(4):451‑467

Suh S, Lenzen M, Treloar G, Hondo H, Horvath A, Huppes G, Jolliet O, Klann U, Krewitt W, Moriguchi Y, Munksgaard J, Norris G A – 2004  System boundary selection for life cycle inventories using hybrid approaches. Environmental Science & Technology 38(3):657‑664

Rebitzer G, Ekvall T, Fischknecht R, Hunkeler D, Norris G A, Rydberg T, Schmidt W-P, Suh S, Weidema B P, Pennington D W – 2004  Life Cycle Assessment. Part 1: Framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications. Environment International 30(5):701‑720

Ekvall T, Weidema B P – 2004  System boundaries and input data in consequential life cycle inventory analysis. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 9(3):161‑171

Christiansen K – 2004  Background paper on environmental and risk aspects of nanotechnology. Copenhagen: Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation.

Weidema B P – 2004  Life cycle system delimitiation – an option or a must for EMA? Presentation for EMAN conference, Lüneburg, 2004.03.04‑05

Udo de Haes H, Heijungs R, Suh S, Huppes G – 2004  Three strategies to overcome the limitations of LCA. Journal of Industrial Ecology 8(3):19‑32

Suh S – 2004  A note on the calculus for physical Input-Output analysis and its application to land appropriation of international trade activities. Ecological Economics 48(1):9‑17

Weidema B P – 2003  Market information in life cycle assessment. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental Project no. 863)

Nielsen P H, Nielsen A M, Weidema B P, Dalgaard R, Halberg N – 2003  LCA food data base. Tjele: Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences

Weidema B P – 2003  Environmental training for the food industry. Chapter 15 in Mattsson B, Sonesson U: Environmentally‑friendly food processing. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing and CRC Press

Weidema B P – 2003  Flexibility for application. Market modelling in LCI databases. Presentation to the International Workshop on LCI‑Quality, Karlsruhe, 2003.10.20‑21

Weidema B P – 2003  Matching bottom-up and top-down for verification and integration of LCI databases. Presentation to the International Workshop on LCI‑Quality, Karlsruhe, 2003.10.20‑21

Weidema B P, Frees N, Petersen E H, Øllgaard H – 2003  Reducing uncertainty in LCI. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental project no. 862)

Hofstetter P, Norris G A – 2003  Why and how should we assess occupational health impacts in integrated product policy. Environmental Science and Technology 37(10):2025‑2035

Notten P, Weidema B P – 2003  An expert system approach to LCI database management. Presentation to the International Workshop on LCI‑Quality, Karlsruhe, 2003.10.20‑21

Notten P, Petrie J G – 2003  An integrated approach to uncertainty assessment in LCA. Presentation to the International Workshop on LCI‑Quality, Karlsruhe, 2003.10.20‑21

Jolliet O, Brent A, Goedkoop M, Itsubo N, Mueller-Wenk R, Peña C, Schenk R, Stewart M, Weidema B P – 2003  Final report of the LCIA definition study. Life Cycle Impact Assessment programme of The UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

Nielsen A M, Christiansen K, Weidema B P – 2003  Prioritisation of product groups and product areas in the integrated product policy. Seminar‑proceedings.

Weidema B P – 2003  “Dispersal of invasive species and GMO” and “Use of natural resources”. Chapter 11 and chapter 12 (with M Stewart) of the Life Cycle Impact Assessment definition study: Background document III. Analysis of midpoint categories. Life Cycle Impact Assessment programme of The UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative.

Weidema B P, Cappellaro F, Carlson R, Notten P, Pålsson A-C, Patyk A, Regalini E, Sacchetto F, Scalbi S – 2003  Procedural guideline for collection, treatment, and quality documentation of LCA data. Document LC‑TG‑23‑001 of the CASCADE project

Rebitzer G, Köhler A, Suh S, Klöpffer W, Jolliet O, Saur K – 2003  Theory and practical implementation of life cycle assessment. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 8(4):235‑240

Weidema B P, Inaba A, Keoleain G A – 2002  Critical review of the 2002 update of the IISI Worldwide LCI Database for Steel Industry Products. Pp. 82‑85 in World Steel Life Cycle Inventory, Methodology Report 1999‑2000. Brussels: International Iron and Steel Institute

Norris G A – 2002  The many dimensions of uncertainty analysis in LCA. Athena Sustainable Materials Institute

Norris G A, Segal J – 2002  Life cycle sustainable development: an extension of the product life cycle assessment framework to address questions of sustainable consumption and development. Pp. 193‑205 in Hertwich E. (ed.): "Life‑cycle approaches to sustainable consumption. Workshop proceedings." International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 2002‑11‑22

Norris G A – 2002  Life cycle emission distributions within the economy: implications for life cycle impact assessment. Risk Analysis 22(5):919‑930

Nishioka Y, Levy J I, Norris G A, Wilson A, Hofstetter P, Spengler J D – 2002  Integrating risk assessment and life cycle assessment: A case study of insulation. Risk Analysis 22(5):1003 ‑ 1017

Norris G A – 2002  Impact characterization in the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts: Methods for acidification, eutrophication, and ozone formation. Journal of Industrial Ecology 6(3&4):79‑101

Hansen Y, Notten P, Petrie J G – 2002  The environmental impact of ash management in coal-based power generation. Applied Geochemistry 17(8):1131‑1141

Weidema B P – 2002  Quantifying Corporate Social Responsibility in the value chain. Presentation for the Life Cycle Management Workshop of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative at the ISO TC207 meeting, Johannesburg, 2002‑06‑12

Suh S, Huppes G – 2002  Missing inventory estimation tool using extended input-output analysis. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 7(3):134‑140

Norris G A, Della Croce F, Jolliet O – 2002  Energy burdens of conventional wholesale and retail portions of product life cycles. Journal of Industrial Ecology 6(2):59‑69

Nielsen A M, Weidema B P – 2001  Input/Output-analysis – Shortcut to life cycle data? Proceedings of a workshop held in Copenhagen on the 29th of September 2000. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental Project 581). Annexes only available in HTML: Annex A (workshop programme) and Annex B (participants list)

Weidema B P, Lindeijer E – 2001  Physical impacts of land use in product life cycle assessment. Final report of the EURENVIRON‑LCAGAPS sub‑project on land use. Lyngby: Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark. (IPL‑033‑01). Revised version dated 2001.12.31

Weidema B P – 2001  Areas of protection and the impact chain. Gate to EHS: Global LCA village. March 2002 p. 1‑3. This paper is a contribution to a debate in the SETAC‑Europe Working Group on impact assessment, which is fully documented in W. Klöpffer: The Areas of Protection Debate. See also the above paper on land use, which was the context in which some of these ideas were developed.

Weidema B P – 2001  Two cases of misleading environmental declarations due to system boundary choices. Presentation for the 9th SETAC Europe LCA Case Studies Symposium, Noordwijkerhout, 2001.11.14‑15

Weidema B P – 2001  LCM – a synthesis of modern management theories. Invited lecture for LCM2001 ‑ The 1st International conference on life cycle management, Copenhagen, 2000.08.26‑29

Norris G A – 2001  Estimating the value of a life cycle assessment. Pp. 157‑162 in proceedings of 1st International conference on life cycle management ‑ LCM2001, Copenhagen, 2001.08.26‑29

Norris G A, Yost P – 2001  A transparent, interactive software environment for communicating Life-Cycle Assessment results: An application to residential windows. Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(4):15‑28

Seppälä J, Basson L, Norris G A – 2001  Decision analysis frameworks for life-cycle impact assessment. Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(4):45‑68

Huijbregts M, Norris G A, Bretz R, Ciroth A, Maurice B, von Bahr B, Weidema B P, de Beaufort A S H – 2001  Framework for modeling data uncertainty in life cycle inventories. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 6(3):127‑132

Weidema B P – 2001  Avoiding co-product allocation in life-cycle assessment. Journal of Industrial Ecology 4(3):11‑33. Also see the addendum containing a further simplification of the presented rules for avoiding allocation.

Norris G A – 2001  Integrating life cycle cost analysis and LCA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 6(2):118‑120

Norris G A – 2001  The requirement for congruence in normalisation. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 6(2):85‑88

Norris G A – 2001  Integrating economic analysis into LCA. Environmental Quality Management 10(3): 59‑64

Weidema B P – 2000  Avoiding co-product allocation in a simplified hypothetical refinery. Section 3.9.3.2, pp. 36‑41 in Part 2b: Operational annex of J B Guinée, M Gorrée, R Heijungs, G Huppes, R Kleijn, A de Koning, L van Oers, A W Sleeswijk, S Suh, H A Udo de Haes, H de Bruijn, R van Duin, M A J Huijbregts, E Lindeijer, A A H Roorda, B L van der Ven, B P Weidema (2001): LCA ‑ An operational guide to the ISO standard. Leiden: Centre of Environmental Science Leiden University

Norris G A – 2000  Life cycle emission distributions within the economy — implications for applying risk assessment. Presentation for Society for Risk Analysis 2000 Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., 2000.12.03‑06

Weidema B P – 2000  Methodological progress to meet the needs of users. Invited lecture. Pp. 21‑22 in the proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Eco Balance, Tsukuba, 2000.10.31‑11.02. Also available in Japanese

Calzoni J, Caspersen C, Dercas N, Gaillard G, Gosse G, Hanegraaf M, Heinzer L, Jungk N, Kool A, Korsuize G, Lechner M, Leviel B, Neumayr R, Nielsen A M, Nielsen P H, Nikolaou A, Panoutsou C, Panvini A, Patyk A, Rathbauer J, Reinhardt G A, Riva G, Smedile E, Stettler C, Weidema B P, Wörgetter M, van Zeijts H – 2000  Bioenergy for Europe: Which one fits best? A comparative analysis for the community. Heidelberg: IFEU – Institut für Energie‑ und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH (Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg).

Nishioka Y, Levy J I, Hofstetter P, Norris G A, Wilson A, Spengler J D – 2000  Regional health effects of demand-side energy management using exposure efficiency. Pp. 209‑212 in the proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Eco Balance, Tsukuba, 2000.10.31‑11.02. Also available in Japanese

Nishioka Y, Hofstetter P, Levy J I, Norris G A, Spengler J D – 2000  Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Increased Residential Insulation: A Risk Assessment/Life Cycle Assessment Approach. Presentation for Society for Risk Analysis 2000 Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., 2000.12.03‑06

Weidema B P – 2000  Can resource depletion be omitted from environmental impact assessments? Poster presentation to the 3rd SETAC World Congress, Brighton 2000.05.21‑25

Weidema B P – 2000  The SPOLD information system for LCI data – a global solution to LCI data exchange. Poster presentation to the 3rd SETAC World Congress, Brighton 2000.05.21‑25  

Pennington D W, Norris G A, Hoagland T, Bare J – 2000  Environmental comparison metrics for life cycle impact assessment and process design. Environmental Progress 19(2): 83‑91

Norris G A – 2000  Advances in normalization and weighting for North American LCA. Presentation for the International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment: Tools for Sustainability, Washington D C, 2000.04.25‑27

Norris G A, Fisk III P, Mclennan J – 2000  Key inputs and leverage to green construction projects. In proceedings of SB2000. Order: Aeneas Technical Publishers, tel: (+31) 499 335833; fax: (+31) 499 335830

Weidema B P, Meeusen M J G, (eds.) – 2000  Agricultural data for life cycle assessments. Vol. 1 & 2. The Hague: Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI). Report 2.00.01. 189+157 pages. ISBN 90‑5242‑563‑9.

Weidema B P – 2000  LCA developments for promoting sustainability. Invited keynote lecture for 2nd National Conference on LCA, Melbourne, 2000.02.23‑24

Weidema B P – 2000  SPOLD Data Exchange Software. A software to create, edit, view, import and export data sets for environmental life cycle inventories using the SPOLD data format.. Brussels: SPOLD.

Pesonen H-L, Ekvall T, Fleischer G, Huppes G, Jahn C, Klos Z S, Rebitzer G, Sonnemann G, Tintinelli A, Weidema B P, Wenzel H – 2000  Framework for scenario development in LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 5(1):21‑30

Weidema B P – 2000  Report from the 8th SETAC LCA Case Studies Symposium. Notes from the 8th SETAC LCA Case Studies Symposium, Brussels, 30 November 2000

Weidema B P – 2000  Increasing credibility of LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 5(2):63–64

CODATA Working Group on Environmental Life Cycle Inventories – 1999  Use of life cycle data in industrial design. Draft report on the development needs.. Lyngby: Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark

Weidema B P – 1999  A reply to the aluminium industry: Each market has its own marginal. Letter to the Editor responding to previously published article on Marginal production technologies for LCI's. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4(6):309‑310

Weidema B P – 1999  System expansions to handle co-products of renewable materials. Pp. 45‑48 in Presentation Summaries of the 7th LCA Case Studies Symposium. Brussels: SETAC‑Europe

Weidema B P, Frees N, Nielsen A M – 1999  Marginal production technologies for life cycle inventories. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 4(1):48‑56

Ekvall T, Person L, Ryberg A, Widheden J, Frees N, Nielsen P H, Weidema B P, Wesnæs M – 1998  Life cycle assessment on packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Main report. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental Project 399)

Weidema B P – 1998  New developments in the methodology for life cycle assessment. Pp. 47‑50 in the Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ecobalance, Tsukuba 1998.11.25‑27 (Read the handout, which is an expanded version of the paper appearing in the proceedings) (Also available in Japanese)

Weidema B P – 1998  Multi-user test of the Data Quality Matrix for product life cycle inventory. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 3(5):259‑265

Weidema B P – 1998  Application typologies for life cycle assessment – A review. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 3(4):237‑ 240

Ryberg A, Ekvall T, Person L, Weidema B P – 1998  Life cycle assessment on packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Aluminium cans. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental Project 402)

Person L, Ekvall T, Weidema B P – 1998  Life cycle assessment on packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Disposable PET bottles. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental Project 405)

Person L, Ekvall T, Weidema B P – 1998  Life cycle assessment on packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Refillable PET bottles. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency. (Environmental Project 404)

Frees N, Weidema B P – 1998  Life cycle assessment on packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Energy and transport scenarios. Copenhagen: Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Environmental Project 406)

Weidema B P, Mortensen B – 1997  Results of a test of LCA-software with statistical functionality. Note for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Lyngby: Institute for Product Development. The .pdf‑file provided here does not contain the annex. Please note that this is not an assessment of LCA‑software on the market, but an assessment of the statistical functionality of software at the beta‑stage.

Weidema B P, Wesnæs M, Erichsen H L, Rydberg T, Eriksson E, Person L, Frees N – 1997  Life cycle assessment on packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Report A: Definition of goal and scope. Results of preliminary investigation. 116 pages, unpublished

Weidema B P – 1997  Guidelines for critical review of life cycle assessments. Originally published 1997 by SPOLD (www.spold.org), Brussels. 14 pages

Weidema B P – 1996  Improving the performance of LCA. Pp. 247‑252 in Proceedings of the 2. International Conference on EcoBalance, Tsukuba, 18.‑20. november 1996 (also available in Japanese pp. 210‑213 in japanese version of proceedings)

Singhofen A, Hemming C, Weidema B P, Grisel L, Bretz R, de Smet B, Russell D – 1996  Life cycle inventory data: Development of a common format. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 1(3):171‑178

Weidema B P, Wesnæs M – 1996  Data quality management for life cycle inventories – an example of using data quality indicators. Journal of Cleaner Production 4(3‑4):167‑174

Marshall H E, Norris G A – 1996  Multiattribute decision analysis method for evaluating buildings and building systems. Washington DC: National Institute of Standards & Technology. Publication no. PB96‑158670. Available for USD 84 (+ USD 8 for airmail) on supply of credit card details and complete shipping address to fax no. +1 703 605 6900 or by e‑mail to Mildred Johnson at NIST

Weidema B P – 1995  Life cycle screenings of two food products. Cleaner Technologies and Cleaner Products for Sustainable Development, NATO ASI Series 2:53‑64