Prospective environmental and economic assessment for biotreatment of micropollutants in drinking water resources in Denmark
Muñoz I, de Vries E, Wittebol J, Aamand J (2015)
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 15(6):1405-1413
A prospective environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and financial cost assessment is performed to the application of bioaugmentation to sand filters in Danish waterworks, to remove 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) from drinking water resources. Based on pilot-scale and laboratory-scale data, we compare bioaugmentation to current alternative strategies, namely granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and well re-location. Both assessments identified well re-location as the least preferred option, however, this result is very sensitive to the distance from the waterworks to the new well. When bioaugmentation is compared to GAC, the former has a lower impact in 13 impact categories, but if immobilized bacteria are used, the impacts are higher than for GAC in all impact categories. On the other hand, from a cost perspective bioaugmentation appears to be preferable to GAC only if immobilized bacteria are used.
Table: Summary of Costs and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for the four scenarios assessed for a waterworks producing 800,000 m3/year.