“Dispersal of invasive species and GMO” and “Use of natural resources”
Weidema B P (2003)
Chapter 11 and chapter 12 (with M Stewart) of the Life Cycle Impact Assessment definition study: Background document III. Analysis of midpoint categories. Life Cycle Impact Assessment programme of The UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative.
Chapter 4.12 on “Dispersal of invasive species and GMO”: Increased dispersal of invasive species, alien to the local ecosystems, may happen as a result of intentional introductions or as an unintentional side-effect of creating new corridors or dispersal vectors. The largest impact is due to transport vectors, such as ballast water of freighters, soil sticking to trucks and souvenirs brought home by tourists or business travellers. Intentional introductions is mainly relevant for agri-, silvi- and aquaculture. The dispersal of genes introduced via genetically modified organisms is generally a more limited problem due to stricter legal approval procedures, but its potential impact can be modelled in the same way as dispersal of natural species.
Chapter 4.12 on “Use of Natural Resources”: In this section a general proposal on the way to handle different types of natural resources, including water, minerals, energy carriers, soil and biotic resources is presented first. Secondly, more detailed considerations are provided for subcategories water use, minerals, soil erosion and soil salination and dessication are presented.